Pandas Sort

Sort groupby results Turn the GroupBy object into a regular dataframe by calling. Indeed, even a modern-day giant panda's biological construction dictates that it is a carnivore. Hello everyone. Closed MLopez-Ibanez opened this issue Mar 7, 2017 · 7 comments Closed pandas. When a is an array with fields defined, this argument specifies which fields to compare first, second, etc. This is a guest community post from Li Jin, a software engineer at Two Sigma Investments, LP in New York. Sort the pandas Dataframe by Multiple Columns   In the following code, we will sort the pandas dataframe by multiple columns (Age, Score). Let’s look at a simple example where we drop a number of columns from a DataFrame. The sort_values() function does not modify the actual DataFrame, but returns the sorted DataFrame. order: str or list of str, optional. In this article we will read excel files using Pandas. import modules. Trifiletti may have said this may indicate a flagellated microbe. Pandas Basics Pandas DataFrames. DataFrame(data = {'Fruit':['apple. Pandas dataframes have indexes for the rows and columns. DataFrame object to an excel file. *****How to sort rows within a Pandas DataFrame***** name year reports coverage Cochice Jason 2012 1 2 Pima Molly 2012 2 2 Santa Cruz Tina 2013 1 3 Maricopa Jake 2014 2 3 Yuma Amy 2014 3 3 name year reports coverage Yuma Amy 2014 3 3 Pima Molly 2012 2 2 Maricopa Jake 2014 2 3 Cochice Jason 2012 1 2 Santa Cruz Tina 2013 1 3 name year reports coverage Cochice Jason 2012 1 2 Santa Cruz Tina 2013. 在之前的文章里我们详细的讨论了pandas中的pandas. You can sort by one column or many columns. Keith Galli 30,364 views. to_frame() and then reindex with reset_index() , then you call sort_values() as you would a normal DataFrame: import pandas as pd df = pd. Drop a variable (column) Note: axis=1 denotes that we are referring to a column, not a row. Jun 13, 2014. sort_index (): to sort pandas data frame by row index. To remove duplicates from pandas DataFrame, you may use the following syntax that you saw at the beginning of this tutorial: DataFrame. The giant panda is a conservation-reliant vulnerable species. Sort the DataFrame without creating a new instance kind : {'quicksort', 'mergesort', 'heapsort'}, optional This option is only applied when sorting on a single column or label. Hello everyone! Today I want to write about the Pandas library (link to the website). Let's now review 4 simple examples to see how to plot each of those 4 charts. Pandas is one of those packages, and makes importing and analyzing data much easier. They possess large molars and strong jaw muscles that can produce a severe bite if provoked. Pandas DataFrame - Sort by Column. Pandas Series Sort_values Tutorial With Example is today's topic. function instead of pandas. Python Pandas - Reindexing - Reindexing changes the row labels and column labels of a DataFrame. Sort a dataframe in Pandas based on multiple columns. sort_values (self, axis=0, ascending=True, inplace=False, kind='quicksort', na_position='last') [source] ¶ Sort by the values. Lets now try to understand what are the different parameters of pandas read_csv and how to use them. When sort = True is passed to groupby (which is by default) the groups will be in sorted order. Pandas objects can be split on any of their axes. A very important component in the data science workflow is data wrangling. Pandas will sort things on the same list of fields by default, so there's no need for a. See the Package overview for more detail about what's in the library. Here are three ways of using Pandas' sample to randomly select/sample/resample rows. See also numpy. Plot a scatter diagram using pandas. Drop a variable (column) Note: axis=1 denotes that we are referring to a column, not a row. In this blog, we will be discussing data analysis using Pandas in Python. Read Excel column names We import the pandas module, including ExcelFile. sort the dataframe in python pandas by index How to sort the dataframe in python pandas by index in terms of ascending and descending order with an example for each using sort_index() method, our focus on this exercise will be on. Pandas has a shortcut when you only want to add new rows called the DataFrame. pandas is a NumFOCUS sponsored project. Let's see the syntax for a value_counts method in Python Pandas Library. To view the first or last few records of a dataframe, you can use the methods. groupby(key, axis=1) obj. It is a great way to get downsampled data frame and work with it. import modules. reset_index() and compare the index values to the original table. SettingWithCopyWarning is one of the most common hurdles people run into when learning pandas. Python with Pandas is used in a wide range of fields including academic and commercial domains including finance, economics, Statistics, analytics, etc. Pandas is one of those packages, and makes importing and analyzing data much easier. kind: {'quicksort', 'mergesort', 'heapsort'}, default 'quicksort' Choice of sorting algorithm. to_frame() and then reindex with reset_index() , then you call sort_values() as you would a normal DataFrame: import pandas as pd df = pd. sort() method that modifies the list in-place. Apologies in advance if I missed it. For example, let's sort our movies DataFrame based on the Gross Earnings column. Learn more about the species we are working to protecting from becoming endangered or extinct. It accepts a 'by' argument which will use the column name of the DataFrame with which the values are to be sorted. Python Pandas Tutorial. The idea is that this object has all of the information needed to then apply some operation to each of the groups. It's different than the sorted Python function since it cannot sort a data frame and particular column cannot be selected. The only remaining giant panda habitat is on the mountainous eastern edge of west China, in Sichuan, Shaanxi, and Gansu provinces. When sort = True is passed to groupby (which is by default) the groups will be in sorted order. I put 'False' in the ascending argument, but my order is still ascending. Pandas has a shortcut when you only want to add new rows called the DataFrame. DataFrameだが、pandas. Next, you'll see how to sort that DataFrame using 4 different examples. If both the real and imaginary parts are non-nan then the order is determined by the real parts except when they are equal, in which case the order is determined by the imaginary parts. The DataFrame is capable of holding 4 data types - booleans, integers, floats, and strings. At times, you may need to import Excel files into Python. In this article, I will offer an opinionated perspective on how to best use the Pandas library for data analysis. Understand df. It is built on the Numpy package and its key data structure is called the DataFrame. sort (columns=None, axis=0, ascending=True, inplace=False, kind='quicksort', na_position='last', **kwargs) [source] ¶ DEPRECATED: use DataFrame. If we replace the index with distance , then plotting becomes easy, as distance becomes the x axis, while velocity becomes the y axis. Giant Pandas mainly live in Sichuan Province (thus nicknamed "home of Giant Pandas"). The sorting API changed in pandas version 0. Sort a Series in ascending or descending order by some criterion. PANDA does not support sorting data via its web interface. plot in pandas. io LEARN DATA SCIENCE ONLINE Start Learning For Free - www. You can read the CSV file with pandas. I put 'False' in the ascending argument, but my order is still ascending. The Pandas Cookbook series of tutorials provides recipes for common tasks and moves on to more advanced topics in statistics and time series analysis. Generate line charts, bar charts, histograms, box plots, and more. Giant pandas usually live in bamboo forest. pandas has an abundance of functionality, far too much for me to cover in this introduction. To access the functions from pandas library, you just need to type pd. 对数据进行排序,用到了sort_values,by参数可以指定根据哪一列数据进行排序,ascending是设置升序和降序(选择多列或者多行排序要加[ ],把选择的行列转换为列表,排序方式也可以同样的操作)。. Warning As of v0. Let's now review 4 simple examples to see how to plot each of those 4 charts. sort() method that modifies the list in-place. Let us get started with an example from a real world data set. Pandas sort dataframe using custom function. w3resource menu Front End. sort_index (): to sort pandas data frame by row index. pandas documentation: Setting and sorting a MultiIndex. The sort_values() function does not modify the actual DataFrame, but returns the sorted DataFrame. To access the functions from pandas library, you just need to type pd. Tuples A tuple is a fixed size grouping of elements, such as an (x, y) co-ordinate. In other words, its digestive tract is built. This page is based on a Jupyter/IPython Notebook: download the original. There are several ways to create a DataFrame. They spend most of their time in locations with altitudes of 1,000 to 4,000 meters above sea level and are only found in south-central China. That is the basic unit of pandas that we are going to deal with till the end of the tutorial. Scatter plots are used to depict a relationship between two variables. While it is exceedingly useful, I frequently find myself struggling to remember how to use the syntax to format the output for my needs. If that’s the case, you can check the following tutorial that explains how to import an Excel file into Python. Sorting HOW TO¶ Author. 17, so in this video, I'll demonstrate both the "old way" and the "new way" to sort. Given a Data Frame, we may not be interested in the entire dataset but only in specific rows. Pandas fluency is essential for any Python-based data professional, people interested in trying a Kaggle challenge, or anyone seeking to automate a data process. pandas is a Python package providing fast, flexible, and expressive data structures designed to make working with structured (tabular, multidimensional, potentially heterogeneous) and time series data both easy and intuitive. A quick web search will reveal scores of Stack Overflow questions, GitHub issues and forum posts from programmers trying to wrap their heads around what this warning means in their particular situation. I am reading in a text file and my guess is that the Index is a product of my index_col when I read this file in. pandas_cub has a single main object, the DataFrame, to hold all of the data. Pandas provides a similar function called (appropriately enough) pivot_table. PANDA does not support sorting data via its web interface. DataFrame object to an excel file. The axis along which to sort. However, there are times when you will have data in a basic list or dictionary and want to populate a DataFrame. How To Use Pandas In Python Application. My objective is to argue that only a small subset of the library is sufficient to…. value_counts() function to allow for sorting by by another series. function every time you need to apply it. table library frustrating at times, I'm finding my way around and finding most things work quite well. To access the functions from pandas library, you just need to type pd. Sorting in pandas. Many operations have the optional boolean inplace parameter which we can use to force pandas to apply the changes to subject data frame. append() method. ipynb Building good graphics with matplotlib ain't easy! The best route is to create a somewhat unattractive visualization with matplotlib, then export it to PDF and open it up in Illustrator. This library was originally built. Sort a dataframe in Pandas based on multiple columns. w3resource menu Front End. Python Pandas DataFrame. When a is an array with fields defined, this argument specifies which fields to compare first, second, etc. Python for Data Analysis Lightning Tutorials Pandas Cookbook Series Python for Data Analysis Lightning Tutorials is a series of tutorials in Data Analysis, Statistics, and Graphics using Python. It is also possible to directly assign manipulate the values in cells, columns, and selections as follows:. Seriesでも同様のやり方でシャッフルできる。 なお、順番がバラバラの行をインデックスや列の値に従ってソートするにはsort_values(), sort_index()を使う。以下の記事を参照。. In this article we will read excel files using Pandas. There are over 50 nature reserves in China to protect giant panda's living habitat. Aug 26, 2019 · And the offer of the pandas was part of a historic thaw in relations. Pandas’ value_counts() easily let you get the frequency counts. Pandas is one of those packages, and makes importing and analyzing data much easier. The resulting object will be in descending order so that the first element is the most frequently-occurring element. This Notebook will cover all the techniques to quickly sort your dataframe in Pandas. 17, so in this video, I. This is part three of a three part introduction to pandas, a Python library for data analysis. 911781 2 1996 69 2022. Is there a way in pandas to reorder the dataframe columns? (I created the dataframe form a dict of lists, so it doesn't automatically have the order I want. Pandas datasets can be split into any of their objects. On the positive side, thanks to human intervention, pandas are multiplying in captivity and are being released into the wild (the giant panda population of the Shaanxi Province / Qinling Mountains area has increased by more than 10% in the past 20 years, according to WWF figures). After we have learned how to do that we continue by reversing the order of the rows. Consequently, sorting along the last axis is faster and uses less space than sorting along any other axis. function instead of pandas. Pandas KEY We'll use shorthand in this cheat sheet df - A pandas DataFrame object s - A pandas Series object IMPORTS Import these to start import pandas as pd import numpy as np LEARN DATA SCIENCE ONLINE Start Learning For Free - www. Sorting Rows In pandas Dataframes. There's also a set of writer functions for writing to a variety of formats (CSVs, HTML tables, JSON). Often while working with pandas dataframe you might have a column with categorical variables, string/characters, and you want to find the frequency counts of each unique elements present in the column. Whether you are looking to sort one or multiple columns. PandasでDataFrameはSeriesの列データをソートしてくれるsort_values関数の使い方について解説しました。. There are many ways to use them to sort data and there doesn't appear to be a single, central place in the various manuals describing them, so I'll do so here. Pandas DataFrame – Sort by Column. I've been able to get it to do what I want by using reset_index and setting inplace to true, which saves the values that are now in the Index to a column, and then I can sort by 'cat' and this new column. Pandas offers several options but it may not always be immediately clear on when to use which ones. I've recently started using Python's excellent Pandas library as a data analysis tool, and, while finding the transition from R's excellent data. 7,pandas,dataframes I have the following dataframe,df: Year totalPubs ActualCitations 0 1994 71 191. Micro tutorial: select rows of a Pandas DataFrame that match a (partial) string. groupby([key1, key2]). For illustration purposes we just create 500 events as random float values assigned to random days over a 700-day period:. Pandas is a software library focused on fast and easy data manipulation and analysis in Python. It is built on the Numpy package and its key data structure is called the DataFrame. In pandas, you can do the same thing with the sort_values method. Seriesをソート(並び替え)するには、sort_values(), sort_index()メソッドを使う。昇順・降順を切り替えたり、複数列を基準にソートしたりできる。. append() method. Pandas stands for "Python Data Analysis Library". itemgetter(). Flexible and powerful data analysis / manipulation library for Python, providing labeled data structures similar to R data. To sort pandas DataFrame, you may use the df. According to the 0. Sorting a column in pandas python can be accomplished using sort_values() function. Since the entries in a CSV file are strings, the sorting will place a nmber like "90" as 'higher. A giant panda needs about 12 to 38 kilograms of food per day, approximately 40% of its own weight. pandas allows you to sort a DataFrame by one of its columns (known as a "Series"), and also allows you to sort a Series alone. Learn to sort your dataframe or series using Pandas. sort() function and sorted() function. This app works best with JavaScript enabled. "This grouped variable is now a GroupBy object. Due to technical limitations of the way data is stored in PANDA, it is not currently possible to sort the data. Choice of sorting algorithm. sort the list by list. In this course, you'll learn how to leverage pandas' extremely powerful data manipulation engine to get the most out of your data. 17, so in this video, I. Pandas DataFrame Exercises, Practice and Solution: Write a Pandas program to sort the data frame first by 'name' in descending order, then by 'score' in ascending order. DataFrame object to an excel file. A single field can be specified as a string, and not all fields need be specified, but unspecified fields will still be used, in the order in which they come up in the dtype, to break ties. Pandas has an apply function which let you apply just about any function on all the values in a column. The pandas library has many techniques that make this process efficient and intuitive. import modules. Import modules. If this is a list of bools, must match the length of the by. For example, we want to change these pipe separated values to a dataframe using pandas read_csv separator. Pandas is one of those packages, and makes importing and analyzing data much easier. Levels in the pivot table will be stored in MultiIndex objects (hierarchical indexes) on the index and columns of the result DataFrame. If your column names won't sort lexicographically (e. Or you can take an existing column in the dataframe and make that column the new index for the dataframe. Pandas stands for “Python Data Analysis Library”. sort has been deprecated, replaced by sort_index for this scenario; preferable not to use inplace as it is usually harder to read and prevents chaining. To sort pandas DataFrame, you may use the df. Parameters used in Pandas Sorting. If possible, it would be really useful to allow for an extra parameter that can override the default behaviour of the pandas. 在之前的文章里我们详细的讨论了pandas中的pandas. loc方法以及pandas. The sort order for complex numbers is lexicographic. sort_values() in the first example. There's also a set of writer functions for writing to a variety of formats (CSVs, HTML tables, JSON). en English (en) Français (fr) Español (es) Italiano (it) Deutsch (de) русский (ru). io LEARN DATA SCIENCE ONLINE Start Learning For Free - www. python,python-2. The dataframe we. sort for more information. To access the functions from pandas library, you just need to type pd. If we want to use different fields for sorting,. The object supports both integer- and label-based indexing and provides a host of methods for performing operations involving the index. Pandas: Sort rows or columns in Dataframe based on values using Dataframe. cut categorical variable Tag: python , pandas I have a data frame that is an output from groupby using a categorical variable created by pd. iloc[, ], which is sure to be a source of confusion for R users. On the official website you can find explanation of what problems pandas solve in general, but I can tell you what problem pandas solve for me. DataFrame, pandas. Often, you may want to subset a pandas dataframe based on one or more values of a specific column. sort (columns=None, axis=0, ascending=True, inplace=False, kind='quicksort', na_position='last', **kwargs) [source] ¶ DEPRECATED: use DataFrame. It accepts a 'by' argument which will use the column name of the DataFrame with which the values are to be sorted. More specifically, I want a stacked bar graph, which is apparently not trivial. There are several ways to create a DataFrame. The sorting API changed in pandas version 0. It is built on the Numpy package and its key data structure is called the DataFrame. Python lists have a built-in sort() method that modifies the list in-place and a sorted() built-in function that builds a new sorted list from an iterable. Pandas' operations tend to produce new data frames instead of modifying the provided ones. We’ll be using Plotly’s recently open sourced library and connecting it to a IPython/Pandas setup with cufflinks. For nearly a month now, I've been working as a lead software engineer at ParagonMeasure, a health technology startup developing passive telemonitoring applications. In this short tutorial, I’ll show you 4 examples to demonstrate how to sort: Column in an ascending order; Column in an descending order; By multiple columns – case#1; By multiple columns – case#2. Essentially, these features make Pandas DataFrames sort of like Excel spreadsheets. 对数据进行排序,用到了sort_values,by参数可以指定根据哪一列数据进行排序,ascending是设置升序和降序(选择多列或者多行排序要加[ ],把选择的行列转换为列表,排序方式也可以同样的操作)。. One of the biggest advantages of having the data as a Pandas Dataframe is that Pandas allows us to slice and dice the data in multiple ways. pandas Time Series Basics. It has been common to see pandas to be imported and aliased as such. PandasでDataFrameはSeriesの列データをソートしてくれるsort_values関数の使い方について解説しました。. sort_values() method to sort the values in a DataFrame based on the values in a single column. Pandas is a data analaysis module. Pandas is a very versatile tool for data analysis in Python and you must definitely know how to do, at the bare minimum, simple operations on it. sort has been deprecated, replaced by sort_index for this scenario; preferable not to use inplace as it is usually harder to read and prevents chaining. A quick web search will reveal scores of Stack Overflow questions, GitHub issues and forum posts from programmers trying to wrap their heads around what this warning means in their particular situation. create dummy dataframe. Like index sorting, sort_values() is the method for sorting by values. Related course: Data Analysis in Python with Pandas. Read Excel column names We import the pandas module, including ExcelFile. But they do branch out, with about 1% of their diet comprising other plants and even meat. Pandas is an open-source, BSD-licensed Python library providing high-performance, easy-to-use data structures and data analysis tools for the Python programming language. Their ancestry, as far as experts can conclude, shows that they descended from meat-loving carnivores. Next, you'll see how to sort that DataFrame using 4 different examples. The sort_values() function does not modify the actual DataFrame, but returns the sorted DataFrame. The idea is that this object has all of the information needed to then apply some operation to each of the groups. Before pandas working with time series in python was a pain for me, now it's fun. For DataFrames, this option is only applied when sorting on a single column or label. See also ndarray. If True, perform operation in-place. DataFrame(data = {'Fruit':['apple. reset_index() and compare the index values to the original table. pandas is an open source, BSD-licensed library providing high-performance, easy-to-use data structures and data analysis tools for the Python programming language. Importing Pandas Now let’s import this using an alias->>>import pandas as pd. we are looking to push the result out. Sorting PANDA data The Problem. Part 3: Using pandas with the MovieLens dataset. ascending: bool, default True. If not None, sort on values in specified index level(s). Pandas is arguably the most important Python package for data science. kind: {'quicksort', 'mergesort', 'heapsort'}, default 'quicksort' Choice of sorting algorithm. Let’s see the syntax for a value_counts method in Python Pandas Library. This library was originally built. Or you can take an existing column in the dataframe and make that column the new index for the dataframe. Pandas Series. A single field can be specified as a string, and not all fields need be specified, but unspecified fields will still be used, in the order in which they come up in the dtype, to break ties. In the example below, we create a list of the column names and swap the first item in the list to the last in the list. Sort a Series in ascending or descending order by some criterion. The abstract definition of grouping is to provide a mapping of labels to group names. See explanation in answer here: Pandas: peculiar performance drop for inplace rename after dropna. DataFrame のソートに関する内容が日本語では簡単なものしかなかったのでまとめました。あまり需要のないところに触れていきます。 pandas 0. It’s different than the sorted Python function since it cannot sort a data frame and particular column cannot be selected. en English (en) Français (fr) Español (es) Italiano (it) Deutsch (de). For nearly a month now, I've been working as a lead software engineer at ParagonMeasure, a health technology startup developing passive telemonitoring applications. Amazon SageMaker provides every developer and data scientist with the ability to build, train, and deploy machine learning models quickly. In this article, I will offer an opinionated perspective on how to best use the Pandas library for data analysis. Pandas' operations tend to produce new data frames instead of modifying the provided ones. Now that we have read in the movies data set from our Excel file, we can start exploring it using pandas. Part 2: Working with DataFrames. Here are a couple of examples to help you quickly get productive using Pandas' main data structure: the DataFrame. After we have learned how to do that we continue by reversing the order of the rows. 3 to appear after Q9. Consequently, sorting along the last axis is faster and uses less space than sorting along any other axis. 911781 2 1996 69 2022. Useful Pandas Snippets […] Dive into Machine Learning with Python Jupyter Notebook and Scikit-Learn-IT大道 - February 5, 2016 […] Useful Pandas Snippets […] Dive into Machine Learning - Will - March 13, 2016 […] Useful Pandas Snippets […] Подборка ссылок для изучения Python — IT-News. create dummy dataframe. Many operations have the optional boolean inplace parameter which we can use to force pandas to apply the changes to subject data frame. You can certainly do that. Plot a scatter diagram using pandas. *****How to sort rows within a Pandas DataFrame***** name year reports coverage Cochice Jason 2012 1 2 Pima Molly 2012 2 2 Santa Cruz Tina 2013 1 3 Maricopa Jake 2014 2 3 Yuma Amy 2014 3 3 name year reports coverage Yuma Amy 2014 3 3 Pima Molly 2012 2 2 Maricopa Jake 2014 2 3 Cochice Jason 2012 1 2 Santa Cruz Tina 2013 1 3 name year reports coverage Cochice Jason 2012 1 2 Santa Cruz Tina 2013. Updated for version: 0. For example, let's sort our movies DataFrame based on the Gross Earnings column. The DataFrame is a labeled 2 Dimensional structure where we can store data of different types. Access free and open data available on IBM's Analytics Exchange. 'mergesort' is the only stable algorithm. Scatter plots are used to depict a relationship between two variables. Importantly, each row and each column in a Pandas DataFrame has a number. The basic sorting method is not too difficult in pandas. The Pandas module is a high performance, highly efficient, and high level data analysis library. The purpose of this article is to show some common Excel tasks and how you would execute similar tasks in pandas. In order to more accurately replicate the Giant Pandas' natural habitat, multiple species of bamboo need to be grown. Pandas is one of those packages, and makes importing and analyzing data much easier. It's different than the sorted Python function since it cannot sort a data frame and particular column cannot be selected. 在之前的文章里我们详细的讨论了pandas中的pandas. To access the functions from pandas library, you just need to type pd. Sorting PANDA data The Problem.  Pandas sort_values()  function sorts the data frame in Ascending or Descending order of provided Column. Pandas are cute, but it's a different kind of panda :) Some Background. Seven examples of box plots in pandas that are grouped, colored, and display the underlying data distribution. loc方法以及pandas. There are over 50 nature reserves in China to protect giant panda's living habitat. Pandas Series. Pandas dataframes have indexes for the rows and columns. iloc方法,今天在看《Python数据分析实战》的时候又发现了一个pandas中已经被deprecated的方法,我们今天就来聊一聊pandas. And just like matplotlib is one of the preferred tools for data visualization in data science, the Pandas library is the one to use if you want to do data manipulation and analysis in Python. pandas is a NumFOCUS sponsored project. If your column names won't sort lexicographically (e. sort (columns=None, axis=0, ascending=True, inplace=False, kind='quicksort', na_position='last', **kwargs) [source] ¶ DEPRECATED: use DataFrame. Pandas has two key sort functions: sort_values and sort_index. What does PANDAS mean? Information and translations of PANDAS in the most comprehensive dictionary definitions resource on the web. Scatter plots are used to depict a relationship between two variables. This example will tell you how to use Pandas to read / write csv file, and how to save the pandas. Pandas dataframes have indexes for the rows and columns. import pandas as pd. Sorting in pandas. To start, you’ll need to collect the data that will be used to create the scatter diagram. Pandas sort_values() function sorts a data frame in Ascending or Descending order of passed Column. In particular, it offers high-level data structures (like DataFrame and Series) and data methods for manipulating and visualizing numerical tables and time series data. Import modules. sort() for more information.